Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammation autoimmune disease. It can affect the skeletal, muscular, integumentary, ocular, immune, circulatory, nervous, and digestive systems.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammation autoimmune disease. It involves multiple joints and is characterized by an inflammation on the tendons resulting in cartilage destruction and bone erosion (Yen-Ju). RA can be very painful and can make a person’s daily activities very difficult. An uncontrol inflammation cause by Rheumatoid Arthritis causes tissue damage and can cause disabilities and deformation. Female smokers and family history of RA are at a higher risk to be affected (Wasserman). Also, the gut microbiota might be a factor for RA. In a study done using genotype and microbiota data was found that the presence of Prevotella spp in the gut microbiota are associated with the rheumatoid arthritis genotype in the absence of rheumatoid arthritis, including in individuals at high risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis. The findings suggest that host genotype is associated with microbiota profile before disease onset (Wells). 

RA can affect the skeletal, muscular, integumentary, ocular, immune, circulatory, nervous, and digestive systems. RA can include symptoms in the hand, feet, shoulders, elbows, hips, knees and ankles (Barhum). It can make the movement of the joints difficult, and the joints can become damage and deformed. Usually, a person with RA is at a higher risk of osteoporosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, can reduce muscle strength, rheumatoid myositis, rheumatoid nodules, skin rashes, ulcers, eye problems, increase of heart disease and anemia, vasculitis, and nerve compression in bone and joints (Barhum). 

 RA diagnose includes having one or more joints with swelling, pain, stiffness, and tenderness. Anti-citrullinated protein antibody, elevated C-reactive protein level or erythrocyte sedimentation rate can suggest a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (Wasserman). The human body requires homeostasis to be able to function properly. Chronic inflammation disturbs the body’s internal stability. Inflammation in the body is regulated by a process including leucocyte migration from vasculature to tissues to eliminate the injury follow by promoting tissue repair. (Alivernini). In RA patience the synovial tissue inflammation is maintained by regular positive feedback in a variety of cells, like myeloid cells (Alivernini). 


Lin, Yen-Ju, et al. “Update on the Pathomechanism, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options for Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Cells, MDPI, 3 Apr. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226834/. 

AM;, Wasserman. “Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis.” American Family Physician, U.S. National Library of Medicine, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22150658/. 

Alivernini, S, et al. “Driving Chronicity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Perpetuating Role of Myeloid Cells.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, John Wiley and Sons Inc., July 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038003/. 

Wells, Philippa M, et al. “Associations between Gut Microbiota and Genetic Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Absence of Disease: a Cross-Sectional Study.” The Lancet. Rheumatology, Elsevier, 25 June 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729822/. 

Barhum, Lana. “How Rheumatoid Arthritis Affects Different Body Systems.” Verywell Health, 5 Feb. 2021, www.verywellhealth.com/rheumatoid-arthritis-effects-on-body-systems-5084588. 


  1. Great job, Crystal! Kuddos on the art work, for one. Just looking at that makes my hand hurt. i am very artistically challenged, but I can appreciate when other people do it well.

    You provided some really neat information, like the different systems that are affected by RA for example. One thing mentioned is that people with RA are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Osteoporosis deals more with the deterioration of the bone as osteoblast activity decreases and osteoclast increases. Besides that, I imagine that due to the inflammation caused by RA that perhaps, the joints, bones, and other areas of the that body that it affects may lose their shape. Looking at your model, the fingers look like they’re caving in. Does RA wear on the body enough that overtime a person’s posture could change?

    I am the type of person that thinks in questions (curiosity). So as I was reading, I really started to wonder how one deals with this condition. More specifically, how is RA treated or how does one learn to cope with it? That’s beyond the scope of this project, but it would be cool to know.

    Jornie Kinga

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