My objective is to describe the stages of mitosis, and my topic is to describe how cancer can form within the cell cycle
Mitosis, also known as the mitotic phase within the cell cycle, consists of seven phases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and lastly cytokinesis. Mitosis plays a major role in the cell cycle and its regulation. The cell cycle consists of the gap 1 phase (G1 phase), synthesis phase (S phase), and gap 2 phase (G2 phase), and lastly, the mitotic phase. Interphase is essentially when the cell is not actively dividing, so all phases of the cell cycle except for the mitotic phase and cytokinesis.
There are multiple checkpoints within the cell cycle that helps regulate cell production. These checkpoints ensure that each cell is ready for the next step, and they also ensure that there was no genetic mutations. The cell cycle is regulated, and when it becomes uncontrolled (unregulated) it’s considered cancer.
When a cell is not ready for the next phase in the cell cycle, it undergoes apoptosis or returns to the G1 phase. However, cancer cells do not abide by cell regulation and will continue to grow and replicate. In Topham’s research states that anti-mitotic agents are used in chemotherapy patients to stop the uncontrolled replication of the cancer cells. (Topham, 2013). The change from aerobic processes to anaerobic processes in a cancer cell can increase the cancer cell’s likelihood to survive and undergo mitosis. (Cairns, 2011). Dhatchinamoorthy’s research states that the kinetochores in the cell cycle is actually plastic ( Dhatchinamoorthy, 2018).
Topham, Taylor, Mitosis and apoptosis: how is the balance set?, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 25, Issue 6, 2013,Pages 780-785,ISSN 0955-0674,
Dhatchinamoorthy, K., Mattingly, M. & Gerton, J.L. Regulation of kinetochore configuration during mitosis. Curr Genet 64, 1197–1203 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00294-018-0841-9.
Cairns, R., Harris, I. & Mak, T. Regulation of cancer cell metabolism. Nat Rev Cancer 11, 85–95 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc2981.
Openstax textbook pages 115-120.