My objective is to describe the stages of mitosis, and my topic is to describe how cancer can form within the cell cycle

Mitosis, also known as the mitotic phase within the cell cycle, consists of seven phases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and lastly cytokinesis. Mitosis plays a major role in the cell cycle and its regulation. The cell cycle consists of the gap 1 phase (G1 phase), synthesis phase (S phase), and gap 2 phase (G2 phase), and lastly, the mitotic phase. Interphase is essentially when the cell is not actively dividing, so all phases of the cell cycle except for the mitotic phase and cytokinesis. 

There are multiple checkpoints within the cell cycle that helps regulate cell production. These checkpoints ensure that each cell is ready for the next step, and they also ensure that there was no genetic mutations. The cell cycle is regulated, and when it becomes uncontrolled (unregulated) it’s considered cancer.

When a cell is not ready for the next phase in the cell cycle, it undergoes apoptosis or returns to the G1 phase. However, cancer cells do not abide by cell regulation and will continue to grow and replicate. In Topham’s research states that anti-mitotic agents are used in chemotherapy patients to stop the uncontrolled replication of the cancer cells. (Topham, 2013). The change from aerobic processes to anaerobic processes in a cancer cell can increase the cancer cell’s likelihood to survive and undergo mitosis. (Cairns, 2011). Dhatchinamoorthy’s research states that the kinetochores in the cell cycle is actually plastic ( Dhatchinamoorthy, 2018). 

Work Cited:

Topham, Taylor, Mitosis and apoptosis: how is the balance set?, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 25, Issue 6, 2013,Pages 780-785,ISSN 0955-0674,

Dhatchinamoorthy, K., Mattingly, M. & Gerton, J.L. Regulation of kinetochore configuration during mitosis. Curr Genet 64, 1197–1203 (2018).

Cairns, R., Harris, I. & Mak, T. Regulation of cancer cell metabolism. Nat Rev Cancer 11, 85–95 (2011).

Openstax textbook pages 115-120. 

One Comment

  1. This project uses multiple types of visual art to display the steps of mitosis within the cell cycle and how genetic material is split between the daughter cells. Each step is shown in sequential order with arrows showing progression from interphase to prophase, to prometaphase, to metaphase, to telophase, to cytokinesis. Clay models highlight the strands of tightly wound DNA that gather into chromosomes and split along the center of the dividing cell.
    The project’s explanation dives into more details of cell division, giving the process context within the larger, overarching cell cycle. It then discusses how the normal cycles of cell life and mitosis can be affected and altered, leading to cancer cell growth. Some natural checkpoints exist that serve to maintain regulation of what the cell needs to be doing and where in its life cycle it should be. Returning to a normal state of homeostasis, or the G1 phase, is the typical course of a healthy cell. In a cancerous state, regulation is impaired and rapid mitosis, or quickly developing cell division and multiplication, takes place. As cells replicate unregulated, masses grow, becoming cancerous nodes or masses.
    Moving on to address cancer treatment, it then follows that containing cancer cell growth and re-instituting cell growth regulation can be a possible means of managing development or curing a patient. Substances that block mitosis from occurring are used in chemotherapy to inhibit further growth.
    This STEAM project, coupled with its mini-essay description, effectively teaches the roles and importance of the cell life cycle and mitosis, as well as addresses the basics of cancer cell growth.

    Maria Ann Early

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