Different Part of the Brain and the functions

Among the most prevalent disorders affecting the neurological system in the elder persons, epilepsy ranks 2nd only to stroke and demnetia. Old age epilepsy, which begins before the age of 60 and continues into old age, and new-onset epilepsy in the elderly are both included in geriatric epilepsy. Older adults’ quality of life is greatly diminished and societal health care resource burden is amplified by epilepsy, particularly late-onset epilepsy.The risk of acquiring epilepsy and seizures is highest among the elderly. Seizures and epilepsy are more common in those aged 60 and up compared to younger age groups. An estimated 85 per 100,000 for those aged 65–69, 159 per 100,000 for those aged 80 and more, and 80.8 per 100,000 for all age groups is the yearly incidence.According to a recent epidemiological study, there is an average of 240 cases of epilepsy per 100,000 people aged 65 and up per year. It is in the elderly that about 25% of cases of new-onset epilepsy develop. By 2020, half of all persons with new-onset epilepsy will be old, according to some researchers. (Lü et al., 2016)

Epilepsy and Seizures in Untreated Alzheimer’s Disease

Clinical seizures will emerge in a small percentage of AD patients over the course of the disease, but this has been known for decades. Between 1.5% and 64.0% of AD patients experienced an unprovoked seizure, according to both prospective and retrospective investigations [7–19]. The proportions tend to be lower, according to more recent, bigger, prospective research. There was a greater incidence of first seizure among individuals with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease compared to nondemented patients, with an odds ratio of approximately 6, in a study that examined all patients over the age of 55 in Rochester, Minnesota, who had their first unprovoked seizure between 1955 and 1984.



Seizures and epilepsy in families with AD

After taking disease duration and severity into consideration, it is unclear if the prevalence of seizures is higher in family instances compared to random cases, and not all affected individuals appear to have seizures. In a study including familial AD caused by presenilin-2 mutations, 30% of patients experienced seizures.Amyloid precursor protein (APP) duplications are associated with an increased risk of seizures; in fact, 57 percent of those affected in one research including five families had seizures.

Emergence of epilepsy in the elderly due to acquired factors

  • Among the many known causes of new-onset epilepsy in the elders, 30%-50% can be attributed to cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke.; Typically, epilepsy can happen either before or after a stroke, or it might be a first sign of a cerebrovascular disease.
  • Rather of coming from totally infarcted areas, multiple investigations have shown that partial destruction is more common as a genesis for seizures. Epilepsy risk factors include hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke, which may be associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.( Lü et al., 2016)
  • Epilepsy can be caused by a variety of circulatory system illnesses, including huge vessel diseases, microvascular diseases, and small vessel diseases of the central nervous system. Even in the absence of stroke, radiographic evidence confirms that risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases—including hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary and peripheral artery disease—are linked to epilepsy.



Brain Activity and Epilepsy

Epileptiform surface Seizures and other EEG abnormalities in Alzheimer’s disease patients, are rare. Few AD seizure observational studies provided EEG results, and many patients were not tested . In these trials, some seizure patients and those without seizures had epileptiform discharges. Few research have explored epileptiform discharges in AD/dementia patients. examined 1674 memory problems clinic patients’ regular EEGs. Epileptiform discharges (spikes or sharp waves) were identified in 3%, 26% of whom had epilepsy. Most discharges were focused and temporal. On discharge, 25% of patients had no clinical indication of epilepsy. Follow-up seizures were documented in two (17%) of this small sample. In another study, severe AD patients and ApoE4-positive relatives had elevated theta and delta activity and strong waves on their EEGs . The incidence and localization of epileptiform anomalies were not reported, and the authors did not provide examples. Epileptiform discharges are rare in AD and memory clinic patients, even in those with seizures, which may be because elderly people are less likely to exhibit interictal discharges on normal EEGs . Only 36% of new-onset epilepsy patients in an elderly cohort had such discharges .

Generalized convulsions

SE is a neurological emergency characterized by seizures characterized by convulsions without full awareness recovery lasting more than 10 minutes. In practical practice, elderly SE is prevalent. In a retrospective analysis, 7.5% of 60-year-olds had SE.69 Drug use is often linked to SE. SE can develop in 15% of drug-induced seizures, especially with antibiotics.( Friedman et al., 2011)


Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and quinolones can cause SE, especially when given intravenously in individuals with liver or kidney disease at high doses. Inhibitors of benzodiazepine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors include quinolones and beta-lactam antibiotics, respectively cause epileptogenesis from N-methyl-D-aspartate Cephalosporins including ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefepime can cause SE. Ipenem causes more seizures than meropenem. SE has been recorded with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and gatifloxacin.

In renally impaired patients, prevent seizures when used with the appropriate dosage of an antibiotic with a low epileptogenic potential. Patients at risk of seizures due to central nervous system lesions and renal or hepatic impairment may benefit from aminoglycosides, azithromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, or teicoplanin, since these medications have no SE reports.




Lü, Y., Liu, S., & Yu, W. (2016). The causes of new-onset epilepsy and seizures in the elderly. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 1425.

Friedman, D., Honig, L. S., & Scarmeas, N. (2011). Seizures and Epilepsy in Alzheimer’s Disease. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 18(4), 285–294.


Thyroid Nodules

I originally had this as an animated gif, but this cite doesn’t allow an upload. I did the identification and treatment of thyroid nodules, so I chose to depict the growth of one of these nodules. This corresponds with our endocrine unit, seeing as the thyroid is such an integral hormonal organ.

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The Marble Bone Disease

Osteopetrosis, “the marble bone disease” affects about 1 in 100,000 to 500,000 individuals each year. Osteopetrosis is a rare disorder that causes bones to grow abnormally and become overly dense. When these bones become overly dense, or “marble-like” they become brittle and can fracture easily. During bone remodeling, the old bone is removed or resorbed by the osteoclast cells, and osteoblasts form new bone. However this process does not work for individuals with osteopetrosis. Instead, the old bone is not removed or resorbed, as the new bone is formed.

**There is suppose to be a video included in this post, but WordPress won’t allow me to upload, so here is the material that was included in the video:

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Wim Hof Breathing Method

My STEAM project was about the Wim Hof Breathing Technique. His breathing technique is said to have many health benefits when practiced with time and commitment. The piece of art I made is an interactive piece. Much like a children’s book. The pull tab at the bottom represents breathing and the little flip tabs up top are for inhaling and exhaling. I took a video of this, but was having trouble uploading it, so email me if you would like to see it in action.


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Valvular Disease and the Effects on the Heart



My steam project is on valvular heart disease. I describe the pathway of blood through the heart and circulatory system and diseases of heart valves that affect this blood flow. This picture shows a healthy non-diseased heart next to an enlarged heart with a leaky pulmonary valve.  The link above is how to access a video I recorded to describe both hearts.

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Instructions for Muscle Movement

This is my Presentation on Designing instructions for different movements.  I chose to demonstrate this by relating it to lifts and exercises common in the gym and why they work within different workout programs.



TJ;, Eng CM;Azizi E;Roberts. “Structural Determinants of Muscle Gearing During Dynamic Contractions.” Integrative and Comparative Biology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29889236/.

Roberts TJ;Eng CM;Sleboda DA;Holt NC;Brainerd EL;Stover KK;Marsh RL;Azizi E; “The Multi-Scale, Three-Dimensional Nature of Skeletal Muscle Contraction.” Physiology (Bethesda, Md.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31577172/.

Pham, Steven. “Physiology, Skeletal Muscle Contraction.” StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 21 June 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559006/.

Heart Attack

The red cake illustrates a normal   functioning heart. The black cake demonstrates a heart that has experienced a heart attack. The color black, shows that blood clots have blocked the blood flow to the heart. The cut piece illustrates loss of tissue and damage.


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Ben Boswell BIOL 112 STEAM project



Gonorrhea song (turkey in the straw)


There’s a lot of little critters that are living in your gut

They’re a-livin in your armpits and they’re livin in your butt

They are mostly really good for you but some are pretty bad  

And the bad ones really hurt and make you really really sad.


It’s those bad little buggers that you really need to watch

And the one I’ll focus in on likes to live up in your crotch

It makes it hurt to pee and it makes you feel raw

It’s an STD named gonorrhea


Gonorrhea, ha ha ha

Gonorrhee-ay, hey hey hey

Roll it up, pat it down, any way at all,

Play a little tune about gonorrhea.


So let’s take a little look at its morphology

It’s a tiny bacteria that’s really hard to see

It’s gram negative, fastidious,

And by golly it’s a diplococcus


On its surface gonorrhea have little pili

And sugars called lipooligosaccharides

It can use the little pili to move itself straight

And can pull 100,000 times its own weight


Gonorrhea, ha ha ha

Gonorrhee-ay, hey hey hey

Roll it up, pat it down, any way at all,

Play a little tune about gonorrhea.


It infects the submucosa of the epithelium

Where it’s quickly eaten up by our immune system

Eating pathogens is where neutrophils are at home

And they kill it using radicals from phagosomes


Now the problem is gonorrhea can be tough

And it fights right back with its own nasty stuff

So if you get gonorrhea you should see a doc

Or it just might end up cleaning your clock


Gonorrhea, ha ha ha

Gonorrhee-ay, hey hey hey

Roll it up, pat it down, any way at all,

Play a little tune about gonorrhea.

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Retained Placenta STEAM

I did my project as a model of a quick run through of birth stages and   show that the placenta can stay in the body and that it can be toxic. This covers the objective about the stages of birth and the complication that can arise with the last stage when the placenta and umbilical cord are retained. This is a very non-literal quick video just so that it isn’t too long and still shows the model.

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Breast Changes During Pregnancy

I made my project into a video like I did last semester, because I thought it was a unique and simplistic visual aid that everyone can watch and receive the message almost instantly. I hope that this style is okay with everyone; as making movies is actually a passion of mine and I am not very good at hands on crafts and art projects. My project is on the changes that occur during pregnancy, specifically to the breasts of a female’s body as it undergoes the changes necessary to facilitate the growth of life. I made a time-lapse video of myself sketching the breasts before pregnancy and breasts during pregnancy. Many changes take place during pregnancy, and a lot of changes actually take place in the breasts themselves. In my exterior sketch, you can see that the breasts become fuller and this is because the female body begins the production of milk when they start growing a child inside of their uterus. You can also see that purple stretchmarks appear as the breasts grow bigger, and these are due to the stretching of skin as they expand. Another important exterior change Is that the areolas and nipples increase in size and sometimes become darker due to increased blood flow to the breasts. These exterior changes are the ones that we hear about the most because they are the changes that we can actually see when we examine them, but there are also many important changes occurring on the inside as well. An increase in estrogen levels allows extra growth of milk ducts and glandular buds that help to produce the milk that the mother will eventually feed her baby with. Other hormones that play significant roles in milk production are human placental lactogen, luteinizing hormone, and oxytocin. As the breasts swell making room for milk storage, the milk ducts extend and elongate in order to accommodate this change. I really enjoyed learning about all of the changes that occur during pregnancy, as someone that would like to be a mom one day, I was interested in how my body will change throughout my pregnancy. I think that pregnancy is such an interesting topic and the reproductive system was one of my very favorite units from this entire class. I think it is very important to recognize all of the changes that a woman’s body goes through in order to bring life into the world, and I think it makes the whole birth process even more incredible and miraculous. Our bodies work hard to keep us alive and well throughout our entire lives, and when a woman becomes pregnant her body not only takes care of itself, but takes care of another life as well and that is something that I find absolutely amazing. The human body is incredible and I just wanted to say how grateful I am to have been a part of such a great class full of great people these last two semesters! Learning about the human body has been an amazing experience that I will not soon forget! Thanks for a great semester, you guys and have a wonderful summer!


All my best,

Miranda Lally



Breast Changes During Pregnancy. (2019, November 8). Retrieved from https://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/breast-changes-during-pregnancy/


PATUREL, A., & KOKSHANIAN, R. (2011). the whole 9 months.  Fit Pregnancy,  18(1), 90—96.


Stanford Children’s Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=normal-breast-development-and-changes-85-P00151

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