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  1. Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are bone dysfunctions that can cause extreme discomfort and even broken bones when doing simple tasks, such as walking, bending over, lifting things, or even sneezing. Osteoarthritis is a major concern for over 240 million people worldwide, and osteoporosis is a major concern for over 200 million people worldwide. Osteoporosis is a condition that results in reduced bone mass due to deterioration of bone tissue and disruption of the bone’s cellular structure. Bone tissue is continuously lost by resorption and rebuilt by formation in healthy individuals, but osteoporosis is what occurs in individuals when the bone’s resorption rate is more than the formation rate. This discrepancy is caused by decrease in hormone production as people age, and puts postmenopausal women at an enhanced risk for developing osteoporosis. Treatments for this disease are based on the severity of the condition, and range from changes in diet to hormone replacement therapy. Osteoarthritis involves the cartilage between high-activity joints (hands, hips, knees, feet) being worn down over time. Joints are cushioned by cartilage that holds fluid, and when the cartilage is worn down the bones start painfully grinding into each other. The degradation of this tissue leads to joint dysfunction, stiffness, pain, discomfort, and decreased mobility in the affected appendages. Rather than being caused by a hormone deficiency, osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear that occurs throughout life. Just like osteoporosis, osteoarthritis also has a wide range of treatments, but no cure. Typically, anti-inflammatory es and physical therapy are prescribed to extend the comfort of the patient.

    Amelia England

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