I am covering this objective “To explore and explain how sensory cells translate stimuli into action potentials and explore the linked neural processes”. To provide information on sensory cells, neural processes, and the perception of pain. This project will be showcasing art through detailed drawings. The objective is to shed light on how sensory cells translate stimuli into action potentials, including pain perception and management.

This project explores sensory processing, neural processes, and pain perception to understand how stimuli produce action potentials. Complex factors impact our view of the world’s interpretation of pain as a warning signal rather than just sensation requiring effective management strategies through understanding its underlying neuronal events. This project uses drawings to show how sensory cells and receptors detect stimuli, such as touch or temperature changes. “Specialized receptors like Mechanoreceptor, Lamellated, Bulbous, and Tactile corpuscles help contribute to these sensations.” (A&P chapter 14)

Info reaches the central nervous system, processed for sense perception. Pain process: Nociceptors transmit noxious/trauma into stimulus through electrical signals along first order neurons through the dorsal root ganglion & spinothalamic tract.” The Perception of Pain in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder”. The second order neurons send pain signals to the thalamus, a region of the brain, which causes feelings of pain. Regulatory signals from higher brain centers change transmission at synapses between neurons through modulation. This pathway is important for sensing and responding to painful stimuli.

Addressing pain management, the project briefly shows the role of opioids like morphine in providing pain relief. But also shows how repeated use leads to tolerance and the need for higher doses that can be dangerous. “The project briefly shows opioids for pain relief but warns of tolerance and risks with increased dosage leading to less relief. Other treatments explored include glial metabolism inhibitors, CB2-selective agonists, and anti-inflammatory agents which target neuroinflammation compared to the risk of escalating doses or dependence on opioids.” (The Neuropathic Pain Triad: neurons, Immune Cells, and Glia.)

To grasp pain management, view pain as tissue damage. Pain characteristics are measured on a scale, including sharp or dull sensations. Brain pathways trigger signals from damaged tissues through nociceptors. Having tailored treatments for chronic pain like coping mechanisms involving motor responses and chemical release to regulate pain sensitivity. The differences in pain experiences among individuals are different, making treatment experiences possibly different for everyone and providing why it’s important to have different approaches such as medications and coping strategies for everyone. An important function of pain involves the sensory-motor system, which changes signals for optimal management of bodily movements. Increasing sensory input is crucial for successful rehabilitation, as training and physical therapy have shown the importance of preprogrammed patterns and muscle activation sequences within the central nervous system. Properly targeted corrective training can aid in managing pain by restoring altered muscles.

In conclusion, how sensory cells translate stimuli into action potentials is a journey through neural processes that define our senses. Pain is a neural event that causes discomfort but having strategies for effective pain management and proper healthcare can help find comfort from pain. With art and this statement, I hope this project provides an understanding of sensory processing, pain perception, and neural processes.


Cruciani, Gianluca. “The Perception of Pain, Discriminative Touch and Affective Touch in Patients Suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder.” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 341, 15 Nov. 2023, pp. 185-193.

Scholz, Joachim. “The Neuropathic Pain Triad: Neurons, Immune Cells and Glia.” Nature Neuroscience, Nov 2007, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1361-1368.

(A&P chapters 12, 13, 14, and 15)

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