My objective is to describe the stages of Mitosis and my research will discuss the mitotic checkpoint and cellular division continuation with a failed checkpoint.


Mitosis can be broken down into 4 major phases. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. During metaphase the cell preforms a check to ensure the cell will divide correctly known as the Spindle-Assembly Checkpoint or SAC. The kinetochores of the chromosomes are the location of this checkpoint. The SAC will use the BUB and MAD proteins to verify that every kinetochore has an attached microtubule from the mitotic spindle. If all kinetochores are attached the phase will continue onto anaphase. If there is a cell that is not attached to a kinetochore the SAC will send out a Mitotic Checkpoint Complex or MCC channel signal halting the cell from continuing onto anaphase. If the checkpoint were to fail and the cell progress past the metaphase with an unattached kinetochore a haploid is formed due to an incorrect number of chromosomes dividing.

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  1. Chelsea completed her STEAM project on the stages of Mitosis, and her research honed in on the mitotic checkpoint and cellular division continuation with a failed checkpoint. At the beginning of her project, we dive into the cell division cycle, with her focus being on mitosis, as she covered the background information of her research. Afterward, she broke down mitosis into steps: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Following the steps of mitosis, cytokinesis can begin. Chelsea then discusses metaphase checkpoint properties, where three separate checkpoints are within the cellular division. She then explains the mitotic halt and how the mitotic checkpoint is a failsafe that helps with chromosome separation accuracy. This is necessary for correct cellular division, minimizing instability, and the development of carcinogens. Chelsea then covers what the progression past a checkpoint failure can cause. The mitotic checkpoint experiences a failure when an unattached kinetochore enters anaphase, which can lead to the development of tumor cells that have the ability to replicate. Throughout Chelsea’s project, she gives reasoning as to why the mitotic checkpoint is crucial in the division of healthy cells, as the failure can lead to the start and spread of tumorous cells.


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