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  1. The 33 tendons, 26 bones, and 100 muscles/tendons in the foot function in providing mobility, balance, and protection/shock absorption (Biology Dictionary, 2017). Plantar fasciitis is a common foot injury in the plantar fascia tendon which causes moderate to severe pain in the foot and if not cared for can potentially lead to more serious injuries. The objectives this project covered are “describing the 4 basic functions and 4 characteristics of muscle tissue and relating the interaction of muscles and the skeletal system”.
    The plantar fascia tendon originates at the base of the calcaneus and forms 5 “bands” which insert at each proximal phalange (Biology Dictionary, 2017). Muscle contraction induces flexion of the toes and when contracted with the achilleas induces extension of the foot. At its resting state, the plantar fascia’s elasticity pulls the phalanges toward the calcaneus forming the arc of the foot. This shape allows for greater control over balance and provides a spring-like effect when walking or running. In some circumstances the length of its resting state is not enough to form an arc, causing what is known as flat foot.
    The plantar fascia tendon is composed of fibrocartilage and the muscle is dense type I collagen fibers, composed of slow oxidative fibers (Stecco et al, 2013). It contains three distinct sections: medial, central, and lateral. The thickest section is the central area with the medial section being the thinnest. The medial section is located at the origin point under the calcaneus and is where tearing of the fibrocartilage occurs. Fibers run longitudinally in most sections, however there is no clear consensus on the possibility of multidirectional fibers in the plantar fascia. Pain is also common in the central section due to wear and tears on the muscle. Straining and spraining the muscle is most common in the arc of the foot but can also occur on the external edge of the foot under the fifth metatarsal. Due to its often-stagnant state with a small range of motion, muscle cramps and strains often occur when there is sudden and drastic increase in use (frequently seen in new swimmers). Plantar Fasciitis on the other hand, occurs when there is a sharp increase in stretching the plantar fascia tendon (ie. running on ball of the foot) or repeated impact on the heal (Buchbinder, 2004). There is no insulation between the fibrocartilage and the calcaneus bone, with adipose epithelial tissue providing a buffer between the medial section and the ground, making this thinner section of the plantar fascia more susceptible to tearing. Pain from plantar fasciitis is also often reported with exercising on new surfaces, change in footwear, eroded footwear, or the lack of footwear.
    Clinical studies have shown that stretching the plantar fascia and achilles tendon aides in preventing plantar fasciitis while also reducing pain and potentially leading to a quicker recovery (Kamonseki et al, 2016). Resting from high impact sports also aides in a faster recovery. Proper footwear is also associated with preventing and faster recovery. The heel height, sole thickness, and rigidity of insoles all impact the likelihood of developing plantar fasciitis (Umar et al, 2022).

    References
    Biology Dictionary. (2017, July 25). Foot (anatomy): Bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, arches and skin. Retrieved November 17, 2022, from https://biologydictionary.net/foot/
    Buchbinder, R. (2004). Plantar fasciitis. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(21), 2159–2166. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmcp032745
    Kamonseki, D. H., Gonçalves, G. A., Yi, L. C., & Júnior, I. L. (2016). Effect of stretching with and without muscle strengthening exercises for the foot and hip in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled single-blind clinical trial. Manual Therapy, 23, 76–82. https://doi-org.uaf.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.math.2015.10.006
    Stecco, C., Corradin, M., Macchi, V., Morra, A., Porzionato, A., Biz, C., & De Caro, R. (2013). Plantar fascia anatomy and its relationship with Achilles tendon and paratenon. Journal of anatomy, 223(6), 665–676. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.12111
    Umar, H., Idrees, W., Umar, W., Khalil, A., & Rizvi, Z. A. (2022). Impact of routine footwear on foot health: A study on plantar fasciitis. Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care, 11(7), 3851–3855. https://doi-org.uaf.idm.oclc.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_637_21

    Dean Adelgren
  2. Dean did his steam project on runners foot also known as plantar fasciitis. The objectives this project covered are describing the 4 basic functions and 4 characteristics of muscle tissue and relating the interaction of muscles and the skeletal system. a little overview of what runners foot is, it is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It involves inflammation of a thick band of tissue that runs across the bottom of each foot and connects the heel bone to the toes (plantar fascia) Plantar fasciitis commonly causes stabbing pain that usually occurs with your first steps in the morning. As you get up and move, the pain normally decreases, but it might return after long periods of standing or when you stand up after sitting. In Deans essay he goes into talking about how the plantar fascia tendon is composed of fibrocartilage and the muscle is dense type I collagen fibers, composed of slow oxidative fibers. there are a couple ways to be able to prevent this injury including resting from high impact sports also aides in a faster recovery. Proper footwear is also associated with preventing and faster recovery. The heel height, sole thickness, and rigidity of insoles all impact the likelihood of developing plantar fasciitis I think Dean did a great job on his abstract, he made what looks like a clay model of the foot and of the plantar fascia tendon will what looks like made up of a balloon. It really looks like he put a tremendous amount of time into this project and was very dedicated to the research of this common foot injury. I very much enjoyed looking over this abstract great job.

    Alex Wood

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