The objective my project covers is explaining how bone development is hormonally regulated. The purpose of my project is to demonstrate how bones are hormonally regulated in the female body. It is a close up representation of what is happening to the bone through a short “comic strip” type of depiction. While it is a scientific based representation that looks literal, I added thought bubbles both to animate what is happening in the pictures and to help with understanding of the process that happens. This is to make the project creative and nonliteral while getting the scientific objective across. My project demonstrates the where, what, and how Menopause affects the bone in a lighter way. Because of the change in hormones as well as what it is like before Menopause. In the before Menopause stage the picture shows the ovaries producing normal levels of estrogen. It then shows the estrogen that then travels through the body to the brain (hypothalamus). Ultimately it shows that it is transmitted into Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which travels to the bone, increasing the osteoblasts functional capacity allowing the osteoblasts to fight off the destruction of the osteoclasts (Mills, Yang, Nielsen, Kassem, Dhillo, Comninos, 2021). After Menopause the ovaries produce significantly less estrogen. Because of this the osteoblasts can’t fight off the osteoclasts’ destruction. With the inability for the osteoblasts to repair the bone as fast as the osteoclasts destroy the bone, this leaves the bones weak and fragile. This causes the bone to be more susceptible to fractures and breaks. Because bone development is hormonally regulated, specifically reproductive hormones, reproductive disorders are the common cause of low bone mass (Mills, Yang, Nielsen, Kassem, Dhillo, Comninos, 2021). Some examples of reproductive disorders include but not limited to, pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis, hypoglycemia, and premature ovarian insufficiency. Although this is not reflected in my project I think it is important to add more information for the sources I read. Estrogen is one of the significant regulating hormones in bone development for both men and women. It was previously thought that the hormone regulating the male bone had to be testosterone but it has been discovered that the main hormone that regulates the male bone along with testosterone is estrogen (Khosla, Oursler, Monroe, 2012). The growth of bone and the maintenance of bone is regulated by estrogen.
Edouard G Mills, Lisa Yang, Morten F Nielsen, Moustapha Kassem, Waljit S Dhillo, Alexander N Comninos, The Relationship Between Bone and Reproductive Hormones Beyond Estrogens and Androgens, Endocrine Reviews, Volume 42, Issue 6, December 2021, Pages 691–719, https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnab015
Khosla S, Oursler MJ, Monroe DG. Estrogen and the skeleton. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;23(11):576-81. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2012.03.008. Epub 2012 May 16. PMID: 22595550; PMCID: PMC3424385.