The objective of this project was to relate the interaction of muscles and the skeletal system. To illustrate this, I created a makeup tutorial-style video where I used makeup and face paint to transform my face into a living model of the major facial bones and muscles. I identified the names of the structures I drew, explained the two major biological functions of the face, and described how bones and muscles work together to carry out everyday activities. To expand upon the idea of musculoskeletal interaction, I ask viewers to consider several paleoanthropological examples. Paranthropus robustus was a human ancestor known for its wide, dish-like face due to its heavy zygomatic arches and powerful masticating muscles. I explain how P. robustus’ strong bones and large muscles worked together so the species could grind down fibrous plants and nuts. I also reference the robust ancestors Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis and describe how, thanks to natural selection, our bones and musculature vary from these species’.


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One Comment

  1. Shaini’s project objective is to relate the interaction of muscles in the skeletal system. This objective is explained and connected to the project. Shalini’s project is a great representation of “The Structure and Evolution of the Facial and Musculoskeletal System.” She shows the process of applying face makeup to resemble the structures her project focuses on. Shalini uses her makeup skills to bring a model of these structures to life. She is sure to physically point out and identify each of the facial structures that she draws onto her face. In her tutorial, she speaks about what the different facial bones and muscles do, and what makes them different and important. She describes and points out the nasal bone, nasal cavity, nasal septum, temporal bone, maxilla, mandible, and parietal bone, etc… She also identifies the zygomaticus major and minor, masidor, masseter, etc… She explains that one of the main purposes of facial muscles is to make facial expressions, the other important purpose is chewing. These actions require both the muscles and bones to work together. So it wouldn’t be possible to make all facial expressions and chew with only facial bones or only facial muscles. The masseter is the muscles that help us chew and the mandible is the bone that helps us to chew. Shalini brings up the evolutionary differences and reasoning for how bones have changed over time. She asks the viewer to consider several paleoanthropological examples that she lists in her video. Her project well encompasses the chosen topic and objective.

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