Endometriosis is a common disease affecting women who are of reproductive age. It is an inflammatory disease that is distinguished by having tissue growing outside the uterus. The symptoms of endometriosis can vary widely with the different stages. Some of them include Painful periods, lower back and abdominal pain, pain with intercourse, Pain with bowel movements or urination, Excessive bleeding during menstrual periods or between periods, Infertility, fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and nausea. All or even some of these symptoms can cause a lot of pain in daily life. To diagnose endometriosis doctors uses ultrasounds to identify cysts associated with endometriosis as well as MRIs. 

This disease has many stages, depending on the location, extent, and depth of lesions and adhesions. Stage one is a minimal form there may be a few small adhesions or lesions surrounding the uterus. These may appear on one ovary, or the tissue lining the pelvis or abdomen. There’s little to no scar tissue. Stage two is a mild form, with more lesions at a deeper level. It can affect both ovaries, and there is scar tissue but is usually minimum. Stage three refers to a moderate level of the disease. It may have small cysts on both ovaries and thick adhesions in some places. Areas like the peritoneum and cul de sac, located between the uterus and rectum, will also be affected. Stage four is considered severe, with deep lesions and thick, numerus adhesions. There are also large cysts on both ovaries and their tubes. 

The lesions are small parts of the uterus that has been damaged or tissue that had attached there, while adhesions are bands of fibrous scar tissue. Adhesions can attach anywhere in the uterus and even attach the uterus to the pelvic wall. The pain from this can be described as stabbing or sharp. Many who have these adhesions say the pain feels nauseating to them. However, this is not for everyone the stage of the disease does not correlate with the severity of symptoms. Many people in the later stages may feel the same amount of pain as someone one stage one or two.

            The treatment for endometriosis is limited due to the lack of knowledge on how it is caused these is no cure simply symptom management. Some of the common yet noninvasive treatments include things like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hormonal agents. Hormone agents are used to treating endometriosis-associated pain. This works by stopping the ovaries from producing hormones and helps slow the growth and local activity of both the endometrium and the endometrial lesions. The only other treatment is surgical this treatment is only recommended for server pain. The surgeon will remove as much of the tissue growth as they can without causing harm and may try to remove scar tissue as well. The most major type of surgery is a hysterectomy that would remove the uterus and ovaries this is very risky considered due to the woman being put through early menopause and causing a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, bone issues, and metabolic conditions.

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