How the bone regulates itself is by having a feedback loop that can regulate the calcium inside the body. For example, if the body has low calcium, then it can signal the parathyroid gland to begin the cycle to help normalize the amount of calcium we have. The process starts with PTH activating the osteoclast, which can break down the bone, and this can help release calcium into the bloodstream. This PTH can also signal vitamin D. The role that Vitamin D plays can signal the kidney and small intestine to absorb the calcium. If the calcium levels are too high, the thyroid glands play a role by producing Calcitonin. Calcitonin ceases the osteoclast from breaking down bone. Calcitonin also tells the kidney to release the calcium through urine rather than absorbing it. 

Calcium is one of the essential minerals in our body that can be found in various foods, which is vital to support our body. Like, muscle contraction, maintaining or building strong bones and teeth, oocyte activation, and more. However, there is such a thing as too much and too little. Having too little can cause adverse effects such as a risk for osteoporosis and low bone mass. The reason why is because calcium plays a significant role in bone remodeling. There are hormones that help bone remodeling; one of them is called Calcitonin. Calcitonin helps maintain calcium homeostasis when calcium levels are high. Low calcium can cause Calcitonin to decrease. Having low Calcitonin can lead to harm to the body. Low calcium levels can lead to Hypocalcemia, affecting our bones and our muscles, making them spasms, aches, or tingles.  Having too much calcium can cause various effects to the body, such as weakening your bones or having kidney stones and causing the brain and heart not to function correctly. In order to have a balanced and healthy lifestyle. You will need proper working parathyroid and thyroid hormone.

There are times when the parathyroid glands do not function properly. Parathyroid glands are located on your neck. One disease that is famous for this is called hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder that causes the parathyroid glands to create too much hormone of parathyroid to be in the bloodstream. With hyperparathyroidism, there are two different types which are primary and secondary. Primary starts in the parathyroid gland, which releases too many hormones. Instead of maintaining homeostasis, releasing too many hormones can cause high calcium in the bloodstream. Secondary is caused by other diseases. The disease can include symptoms of having low calcium in the body. A secondary disease can affect your body with a low bloodstream which can cause the parathyroid to send out too many hormones. 

Hyperparathyroidism starts for various reasons, such as having a non-cancerous or cancerous tumor located on the parathyroid. A final reason that hyperparathyroidism can occur is when the parathyroid glands are not functioning correctly, which causes it to become too active. When parathyroid glands are not functioning correctly, it can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and cardiovascular disease. There are treatments available for people to have. The majority of the people react well to the treatments. The treatments can include Medications such as anti-thyroids and radioactive iodine. The medications can slow down the production of hormones being released into the bloodstream. If needed, surgery can remove the thyroid gland.

Citation:

Bilezikian, J. P., Bandeira, L., Khan, A., & Cusano, N. E. (2017, September 17). Hyperparathyroidism. The Lancet. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0140673617314307#!

Pravina, P., Sayaji, D., & Avinash, M. (n.d.). Calcium and its Role in Human Bod. 2013; P.G .Department of Chemistry, Y. C. Institute of Science, Satara, Maharashtra, India.


LG;, R. (n.d.). Hormonal regulation of bone growth and remodelling. Ciba Foundation symposium. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3068012/.



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