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  1. Tracy’s paper examines the causes, symptoms, and prevention of COPD. COPD is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It causes difficulty breathing, wheezing, a cough that is persistent, and expelled mucus due to inflammation which causes restricted airflow. The destruction of the alveoli, the air sacs int the lungs, and reduced diffusion of oxygen needed is indicative of Emphysema. Chronic bronchitis is when the airways become inflamed, and a buildup of mucus occurs. Both conditions are associated with COPD. COPD is one of the leading causes of death in the United States with 16 million people diagnosed currently and of those 4 million deaths occur annually. The prevalence in various regions and it’s contributing factors is discussed in this paper as well. Discussed in this paper are some of the preventative measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing COPD. Although reducing contact with harmful toxins and avoiding smoking can be preventative actions, it is not always guaranteed as some people develop the disease without ever smoking or being in known contact with harmful toxins. The disease is also genetic for some. The various contributing factors to this disease are highlighted in Tracy’s paper. In addition to the many factors already known about this disease, Tracy touches on the affects COVID-19 has on patients with COPD such as mortality rate and severity. Although no cure is available, treatments are available to improve quality of life. Finally, Tracy touches on the costs and care associated with COPD. She illustrated the alveoli in both the diseased lung and the healthy lung to give a clear idea of what effect this disease has on the important functions within the lungs.

    Jessica Cleaver

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