1. The project explores osteoporosis in men and compares it with the condition that is more frequently examined in women. Osteoporosis, which mostly affects cancellous bone and results in lower bone density and an increased risk of fracture, is caused by osteoclasts resorbing bone more quickly than osteoblasts can deposit it. Men are more likely than women to develop osteoporosis later in life because of their higher peak bone mass and lack of bone density loss associated with menopause. Male osteoporosis frequently manifests as a more severe form when diagnosed, while having a lower frequency than female osteoporosis.

    The difficulties in managing osteoporosis in men are partly caused by underdiagnosis and undertreatment of the condition. Historically, the majority of research on osteoporosis treatments has been conducted on female patients, creating a large knowledge vacuum about effective male-specific remedies. Clinical trials have revealed differing degrees of success for current medications, including teriparatide, testosterone therapy, bisphosphonates, and denosumab. Notably, the effects of denosumab and bisphosphonates on males have been found to be comparable to those on women. For example, denosumab efficiently reduces bone resorption and has been very helpful for men who have prostate cancer.

    While testosterone replacement therapy can help men with hypogonadism or low testosterone levels in the short term by increasing bone mineral density, there aren’t enough long-term research on the subject to provide a general recommendation. Fall risk reduction and calcium and vitamin D supplementation are examples of general preventive strategies. To better understand the characteristics that are unique to males and to develop focused therapy methods that optimize results for men who suffer from osteoporosis, more study is necessary.

    (Christina I really enjoyed reading your essay; it was super interesting and well written!)

    Linnea Beauchamp

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