The objective of this project was to relate the interaction of muscles and the skeletal system. To illustrate this, I created a makeup tutorial-style video where I used makeup and face paint to transform my face into a living model of the major facial bones and muscles. I identified the names of the structures I drew, explained the two major biological functions of the face, and described how bones and muscles work together to carry out everyday activities. To expand upon the idea of musculoskeletal interaction, I ask viewers to consider several paleoanthropological examples. Paranthropus robustus was a human ancestor known for its wide, dish-like face due to its heavy zygomatic arches and powerful masticating muscles. I explain how P. robustus’ strong bones and large muscles worked together so the species could grind down fibrous plants and nuts. I also reference the robust ancestors Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis and describe how, thanks to natural selection, our bones and musculature vary from these species’.
Betts, J. G., Wise, J., Young, K. A., Desaix, P., Johnson, E., Johnson, J. E., Korol, O., Kruse, D., Poe, B., & Womble, M. D. (2013). The Skull; Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back . In Anatomy and physiology. essay, OpenStax College, Rice University.
Human family tree. The Smithsonian Institution’s Human Origins Program. (2020, December 9). Retrieved July 22, 2022, from https://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree
Lieberman, D. E. (1998). Sphenoid shortening and the evolution of modern human cranial shape. Nature, 393(6681), 158–162. https://doi.org/10.1038/30227
Resnick, B. (2018, April 9). Scientists have an intriguing new theory about our eyebrows and foreheads. Vox. Retrieved July 20, 2022, from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2018/4/9/17206448/eyebrows-forehead-science-anthropology-nature-study
University of Wisconsin-Madison. (n.d.). Virtual Lab: Paranthropus robustus Crania. John Hawks Laboratory. Retrieved July 20, 2022, from https://hominin.anthropology.wisc.edu/virtual-lab-robustus-crania.html
Westbrook , K. E., Nessel, T. A., Hohman, M. H., & Varacallo, M. (2022, January). Anatomy, head and neck, facial muscles – NCBI bookshelf. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved July 20, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493209/